This manual provides guidance for the safe design and economical construction of retaining and flood walls. Rankines earth pressure coefficients for inclined ground. Seismic earth pressures on retaining structures and. Active earth pressure coefficient ka is the ratio between the lateral and vertical principal effective stresses when an earth retaining structure moves away from the retained soil.
Foundations and earth structures, navfac, design manual 7. Pdf earth pressure and earth retaining structures download. Two different polystyrene materials were utilized as deformable inclusions. Lateral earth pressure is an important parameter for the design of bridge abutment, different types of retaining walls such as gravity retaining walls, cantilever walls, buttresses, sheet piles and other retaining structures. Lateral pressure reduction on earthretaining structures using geofoams. Retaining wall design including estimation of lateral earth pressure and wall movement is a complex soilstructure interaction problem. Retaining walls are structure used to retain soil, rock or other materials in a vertical condition. Should the wall be forced to move toward the backfill, for some reason, passive earth pressure will develop and increase the lateral earth pressure appreciably above that occurring in the atrest state. In this study, the results of 1g shaking table tests performed on smallscale flexible cantilever wall models retaining composite backfill made of a deformable geofoam inclusion and granular cohesionless material were presented. Lateral earth pressure acting on retaining wall the main purpose of retaining wall construction is to retain soil. Calculating the lateral earth pressure there is a relationship between the vertical effective overburden pressure and the lateral earth pressure. There are two distinct kinds of lateral earth pressure.
This manual provides guidance for the safe design and economical. Sliding soil wedge theory is the basis for most of the theories by which lateral earth pressure is computed. The lateral forces from backfill is resisted by the weight of wall itself, and due to their massive nature, they develop little or no tension. Earth pressure and retaining wall basics for nongeotechnical engineers richard p. Retaining walls must be designed for lateral earth pressure. Sitar, geraili, candia state of the art, seismically induced lateral earth pressures on retaining structures and basement walls. Gravity retaining wall ouestion a gravity retaining wall is shown below. The reference manual for soils and foundations course is intended for.
Gravity walls are the earliest known retaining structures. Soils by the nature of gravity exert both vertical and lateral earth pressures. Ceen 341 lecture 23 lateral earth pressures, part i youtube. Loads and forces acting on retaining wall and their calculations pdf. Seismic earth pressures on flexible cantilever retaining. Lateral earth pressure and design of retaining structures springerlink. Jan 18, 2018 this video focuses on rankines lateral active and passive earth pressure.
Extended mononobeokabe method for seismic design of. The pressure at any point in a fluid such as water is the same in all directions. Lateral dynamic earth pressures and wall displacements at different. They are built from solid concrete or rock rubble mortared together. Considering some simple assumptions and using a closed form method, mo solves the equations of equilibrium and suggests seismic active and passive lateral earth pressures. Then the lateral pressure distribution will be known. Static pressure on retaining wall the seismic behavior of retaining wall depends on the total lateral earth pressure that develops during the earth shaking. It is known that the distribution of lateral earth pressure against retaining walls is. In general, they are used to hold back or support soil banks and water or to maintain difference in the elevation of the ground surface on each of wall sides. Lateral stresses in retaining structures using geofoam 6. The design of retaining structures requires an evaluation of the loads likely to act on the system during its design life and the strength, loaddeformation, and volumechange response of the materials to the imposed loads. Atrest earth pressures in the neutral axis of the slide mass, which is a restricted zone where there is little dilation or contraction of the ground mass 3.
Passive earth pressures in the lower two thirds of the slide mass, where the ground is in compression. Deep excavation atrest lateral earth pressures deep. Fhwa nhi06089 10 earth retaining structures soils and foundations volume ii 10 1 december 2006 chapter 10. It is important because it affects the consolidation behavior and strength of the. Monitoring lateral earth pressure and movements of cut retaining walls. Seismic earth pressures on retaining structures and basement. This video focuses on rankines lateral active and passive earth pressure. Most common materials used for retaining walls are. Derivation of equation for depth of crack d c in cohesive.
Foundation engineering lateral earth pressure as shown in figure above, there are three types of lateral earth pressure lep. Adjacent structures and rightsofway architectural and landscaping considerations section vii. Retaining walls require quantitative estimate of the of lateral pressure for either design or stability analysis. These assumptions lead to hydrostatic or triangular pressure distributions when calculating the lateral earth pressures being exerted. Coulomb and rankine proposed their theories to estimate active and passive lateral earth pressures. Mononobeokabe mo method is still employed as the first option to estimate lateral earth pressures during earthquakes by geotechnical engineers. The lateral earth pressure experienced by a retaining structure is made up of several components. Earth pressure and retaining wall basics for nongeotechnical. These kinds of theories propose a coefficient which is a ratio between horizontal and vertical stress behind retaining walls. The lateral earth pressure is important because it affects the consolidation behavior and strength of the soil and because it is considered in the design of geotechnical engineering structures such as retaining walls, basements, tunnels, deep foundations and braced excavations. Lateral earth pressure model is belonging to the first group of theories in classical soil mechanics. Read earth pressure and earth retaining structures online, read in mobile or kindle.
Loads and forces acting on retaining wall and their. As the retaining wall moves away from the soil mass, the lateral. These assumptions lead to hydrostatic or triangular pressure distributions when calculating the lateral earth pressures being exerted against. Each component of the retaining wall is checked for adequate strength and the steel reinforcement. Based on the comparisons of the lateral dynamic pressure and wall displacements with different flexibility ratios, it can be noted that the earth pressure against the rigid walls was reduced by the withinbackfill deformations induced by the lateral compression of the low stiffness inclusion. Eps geofoam to reduce lateral earth pressure on rigid walls.
First, let us consider a retaining wall which holds back. Hence they provide a lateral support to vertical slopes of soil that would otherwise collapse into a more natural shape. Numerous such instances have been reported, indicating that the lateral earth pressure distribution behind the retaining structures must be associated not only with the type of structural movement taking place but also with the magnitude. In this pdf files you can see 23 problems about lateral earth pressure anda retaining wall problems. This total pressure includes both the static gravitational pressure that exist before earthquake occurs and the transient dynamic pressure induced by the earthquake. In general, they are used to hold back or support soil banks and water or to.
Retaining and sheetpile walls, both braced and unbraced excavations, grain in silo walls and bins, and earth or rock contacting tunnel walls and other underground structures. Lateral earth pressure geotechnical engineering civil. Lateral earth pressure and earth retaining structures chapter 12. The procedures of calculating lateral earth pressure was discussed previously in chapter7. Compare measured lateral earth pressure and retaining wall movement versus. Lateral pressure contd in effect, this active earth pressure reduces te lateral earth pressure occurring in the atrest state. The wall may be restrained from moving, for example. Passive earth pressure coefficient kp is the ratio between the lateral and vertical principal effective stresses when an earth retaining structure is forced to move against a soil mass.
Bridge embankments seismic risk assessment and ranking. Lateral earth pressure and earthretaining structures chapter 12. Retaining walls provide support for vertical or near vertical grade changes, while also preventing erosion or down slope movement. Monitoring lateral earth pressure and movements of cut.
Different types of retaining walls are used to retain soil in different places. Lateral pressure on earth retaining structures foundation. Lateral earth pressure problems involved with cantilever retaining. Retaining walls are structures used to provide stability for earth or other materials at their natural slopes. This manual is intended primarily for retaining walls which will be subjected to hydraulic loadings such as flowing water, submergence, wave action, and spray, exposure to chemically.
For instance a retaining wall can be used to retain fill along a. Pdf lateral earth pressure considering the displacement of a. Wedge size issues on calculating seismically induced lateral earth pressure for retaining structures 45 manuscript received february 28, 2014. Pdf seismically induced lateral earth pressures on retaining. For the wall retaining wall in the left side there exist a soil with height less than the soil in the right and as mentioned above the right soil will pushes the wall away, so the wall will be pushed into the left soil i. Thus the lateral pressure on a vertical surface retaining water is equal to.
Download earth pressure and earth retaining structures ebook free in pdf and epub format. The pressure in the pore water in a fully saturated soil is hydrostatic, i. Variation of the magnitude of lateral earth pressure with wall tilt h. An option sometimes employed is to use the building frame as a retaining element, comprising a rigidly framed earth retaining structure rfers. Pdf seismically induced lateral earth pressures on. Nov 29, 2017 1 explain the differences between passive, active, and atrest lateral earth pressure. Grain pressure on silo walls and bins require a thorough knowledge of the lateral forces that act between the retaining structures and the soil masses being. American society of civil engineers geoinstitute er2010. Lateral earth pressures castinplace and semigravity walls. If the wall does not move, an intermediate stress state exists called earth pressure at rest. Lateral pressures in this zone are typically 10x to 20x higher then in the headscarp.
A wall system is designed to resist lateral earth pressures and water. Earth pressures against and stability of retaining structures. Lateral pressure acting on basement walls or retaining walls must be resisted by structural means incorporated into the walls. Therefore, they are usually not reinforced with steel. Seismic earth pressures on retaining structures and basement walls in cohesionless soils by roozbeh geraili mikola a dissertation submitted in partial satisfaction of the requirements for the degree of doctor of philosophy in engineering civil and environmental engineering in the graduate division of the university of california, berkeley. Lateral earth pressure 111 the lateral earth pressure problem lateral earth pressure is a significant design element in a number of foundation engineering problems. Seismic performance and simulation of behavior of structures. Rankines lateral earth pressure active and passive. Faculty of civil and environmental engineering university of iceland 2011. Designing any retaining wall requires knowledge of lateral earth pressure, the pressure developed by the backfill. Lateral earth pressures are the primary driving factor in the design of retaining walls.
Lateral pressures develop on retaining structures as a result of the adjacent earth mass, surcharge, water, and equipment. Gravity retaining wall depends on its weight for resisting lateral earth. It is the force generated by the lateral earth pressure that constitutes a large part of the load that the wall must carry. Lateral earth pressure problems pdf civil engineering. The lateral earth pressure is a significant design parameter in retaining structures and in number foundation engineering problems. The initial lateral earth pressure of soisl in nature have an insitu state of stress commonly refered to. We focus on explaining what it is, where it comes from, and spend a bit of time explaining the formula. For instance a retaining wall can be used to retain fill along a slope or it can be used to. Estimation of seismic earth pressures against rigid retaining. Fullscale pilot study to reduce lateral stresses in. Weber course content content section 1 retaining walls are structures that support backfill and allow for a change of grade. The proper design of those structures required estimation of lateral earth pressure, which is a function of several factors, such as a type and amount of wall movement, b shear strength parameters of the soil, c unit weight of the soil, and d drainage conditions in the backfill. Lateral earth pressure and design of retaining structures. Retaining walls depend either on their own weight, their own weight plus the additional weight of laterally supported material, or on.1036 1480 710 308 1054 1075 1339 1208 523 947 1575 1406 796 1458 153 109 1354 879 1409 1471 1151 1115 757 1058 709 1396 838 1586 16 292 847 622 296 810 820 908